The Black Freedom Struggle in the Urban North (2024)

  • 1. Leon F. Litwack, North of Slavery: The Negro in the Free States, 1790–1860 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961); Leslie Harris and Ira Berlin, eds., Slavery in New York (New York, NY: New Press, 2005); Sven Beckert, The Empire of Cotton (New York, NY: Knopf, 2014); and Tiya Miles, The Dawn of Detroit: A Chronicle of Slavery and Freedom in the City of the Straits (New York, NY: New Press, 2017).

  • 2. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, vol. 1 [1835], trans. Arthur Goldhammer, ed. Olivier Zunz (New York, NY: Library of America, 2004), 396.

  • 3. James Oliver Horton and Lois E. Horton, In Hope of Liberty: Culture, Community, and Protest Among Northern Free Blacks, 1600–1860 (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1997); Gary B. Nash and Jean R. Soderlund, Freedom by Degrees: Emancipation in Pennsylvania and Its Aftermath (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1991); Litwack, North of Slavery; and Pauli Murray, ed., States’ Laws on Race and Color [1951], reprint (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1997).

  • 4. James N. Gregory, Southern Diaspora: How the Great Migrations of Black and White Southerners Changed America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005); James R. Grossman, Land of Hope: Chicago, Black Southerners, and the Great Migration (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1989); Joe W. Trotter Jr., ed., The Great Migration in Historical Perspective (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991); and Isabel Wilkerson, The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America’s Great Migration (New York, NY: Random House, 2010).

  • 5. Roberta Senechal, The Sociogenesis of a Race Riot: Springfield Illinois in 1908 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990); William Tuttle, Race Riot: Chicago in the Red Summer of 1919 (New York, NY: Athenaeum, 1970); August Meier and Elliott Rudwick, Along the Color Line: Explorations in the Black Experience (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1976); David Allan Levine, Internal Combustion: The Races in Detroit, 1915–1926 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1976); Domenic J. Capeci Jr., The Harlem Riot of 1943 (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1977); and Elliott Rudwick, Race Riot at East Saint Louis, July 2, 1917 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1982).

  • 6. Kenneth T. Jackson, The Ku Klux Klan in the City (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1968); Leonard J. Moore, Citizen Klansmen: The Ku Klux Klan in Indiana, 1921–1928 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991). Linda Gordon, The Second Coming of the KKK: The Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s and the American Political Tradition (New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 2017); and Kevin M. Boyle, Arc of Justice: A Saga of Race, Civil Rights, and Murder in the Jazz Age (New York, NY: Henry Holt, 2005).

  • 7. Victoria Wolcott. Race, Riots, and Roller Coasters: The Struggle over Segregated Recreation in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012); for a general overview of patterns of Jim Crow in the North, see Sugrue, Sweet Land, chap. 5.

  • 8. Nina Mjagkij, Light in the Darkness: African Americans and the YMCA, 1852–1946 (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2003); Nina Mjagkij and Margaret Pratt, eds. Men and Women Adrift: The YMCA and YWCA in the City (New York: New York University Press, 1997), see especially chapters 4 and 6–9; and Judith Weisenfeld, African American Women and Christian Activism: New York’s Black YWCA, 1905–45 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997).

  • 9. Jeff Wiltse, Contested Waters: A Social History of Swimming Pools in America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007); Wolcott, Race, Riots, and Roller Coasters; and Bryant Simon, Boardwalk of Dreams: Atlantic City and the Fate of Urban America (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2004).

  • 10. Sugrue, Sweet Land of Liberty, chap. 3.

  • 11. Robert H. Zieger, For Jobs and Freedom: Race and Labor in America since 1865 (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2010); Jacqueline Jones, Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow: Black Women, Work, and the Family from the Civil War to the Present (New York, NY: Basic Books, 1985); and Eric Arnesen, ed., The Black Worker: Race. Labor, and Civil Rights Since Emancipation (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2007), chapters 5, 8, 9, 11. The best overview of labor patterns for African American workers remains Robert C. Weaver, Negro Labor: A National Problem (New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace, 1946).

  • 12. David R. Roediger and Elizabeth D. Esch, The Production of Difference: Race and the Management of Labor in U.S. History (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2012); Michael Reich, Racial Inequality: A Political-Economic Analysis (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1981); David M. Gordon, Richard Edwards, and Michael Reich, Segmented Work, Divided Workers: The Historical Transformation of Labor in the United States (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Herbert Northrup, et al., Negro Employment in Basic Industry: A Study of Racial Policies in Six Industries (Philadelphia: Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 1970); Beth Tompkins Bates, The Making of Black Detroit in the Age of Henry Ford (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2013); and Thomas J. Sugrue, The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2014).

  • 13. Beth Tompkins Bates, Pullman Porters and the Rise of Protest Politics in Black America, 1925–1945 (Chapel Hill, 2001); Eric Arnesen, Brotherhoods of Color: Black Railroad Workers and the Struggle for Equality (Cambridge, MA, 2001), 84–115; and Melinda Chateauvert, Marching Together: Women of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1998).

  • 14. Robert H. Zieger, The CIO, 1935–1955 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006); Robert Korstad and Nelson Lichtenstein, “Opportunities Found and Lost: Labor Radicals and the Early Civil Rights Movement,” Journal of American History 75 (1988): 786–811; Michael Goldfield, Race and the CIO: The Possibilities for Racial. Egalitarianism During the 1930s and 1940s (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1993). On the CIO, labor, and race generally, see Eric Shickler, Racial Realignment: The Transformation of American Liberalism, 1932–1965 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2016); and Reuel Schiller, Forging Rivals: Race, Class, Law, and the Collapse of Postwar Liberalism (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2015).

  • 15. W. E. B. Du Bois, The Philadelphia Negro (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1899); and David M. Katzman, Before the Ghetto: Black Detroit in the Nineteenth Century (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1974).

  • 16. Robert M. Fogelson, Bourgeois Nightmares: Suburbia, 1870–1930 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005); and James Loewen, Sundown Towns: A Hidden Dimension of American Racism (New York, NY: New Press, 2005).

  • 17. Louis Lee Woods II, “The Federal Home Loan Bank Board, Redlining, and the National Proliferation of Racial Lending Discrimination, 1921–1950,” Journal of Urban History 38 (2012), 1036–1059; Kenneth T. Jackson, “Race, Ethnicity, and Real Estate Appraisal: The Home Owners' Loan Corporation and the Federal Housing Administration,” Journal of Urban History 6 (1980), 419–452; and Robert K. Nelson, et al., “Mapping Inequality”, in American Panorama, ed. Robert K. Nelson and Edward L. Ayers (Richmond: University of Richmond Digital Processing Lab, 2016). This site includes digitized HOLC appraisal maps for dozens of cities.

  • 18. Arnold R. Hirsch, “With or Without Jim Crow: Black Residential Segregation in the United States,” in Urban Policy in Twentieth-Century America, ed. Arnold R. Hirsch and Raymond A. Mohl (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1993), 65–99; Stephen Grant Meyer, As Long As They Don’t Move Next Door: Segregation and Racial Conflict in American Neighborhoods (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000); Andrew Wiese, Places of Their Own: African American Suburbanization in the Twentieth Century (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2004); Beryl Satter, Family Properties: Race, Real Estate, and the Exploitation of Black Urban America (New York, NY: Metropolitan Books, 2009); Douglas S. Massey and Nancy A. Denton, American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Urban Underclass (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993). Key case studies of ghetto formation include Gilbert Osofsky, Harlem: The Making of a Ghetto, 1890–1930 (New York, NY: Harper and Row, 1966); Gilbert Osofsky, “The Enduring Ghetto,” Journal of American History 55 (1968): 243–255; Kenneth T. Kusmer, A Ghetto Takes Shape: Black Cleveland, 1870–1930 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1976); Thomas L. Philpott, The Slum and the Ghetto: Neighborhood Deterioration and Reform, Chicago, 1880–1930 (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1978); Allan H. Spear, Black Chicago: The Making of a Negro Ghetto (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1967); and Kenneth L. Kusmer, “The Black Urban Experience in American History,” in The State of Afro-American History: Past, Present, and Future, ed. Darlene Clark Hine (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1986), 91–122. For a long view of history, see Mitchell Duneier, Ghetto: The Invention of a Place, the History of an Idea (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2016).

  • 19. Davison M. Douglas, Jim Crow Moves North: The Battle over Northern School Segregation, 1865–1954 (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2005); Sugrue, Sweet Land of Liberty, chapters 6 and 13; Matthew D. Lassiter, “De Jure/De Facto Segregation: The Long Shadow of a National Myth,” in The Myth of Southern Exceptionalism, ed. Lassiter and Joseph Crespino (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2009), 25–48; for case studies, see Emily E. Straus, Death of a Suburban Dream: Race and Schools in Compton, California (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014); Jack Dougherty, More than One Struggle: The Evolution of Black School Reform in Milwaukee (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004); Vincent P. Franklin, The Education of Black Philadelphia: The Social and Educational History of a Minority Community, 1900–1950 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1979); Michael W. Homel, Down From Equality: Black Chicagoans and the Public Schools, 1920–41 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1984); and August Meier and Elliott Rudwick, Along the Color Line: Explorations in the Black Experience (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1976), 312–314, 359–362, 376–377.

  • 20. Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorder (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1968); Marilynn Johnson, Street Justice: A History of Police Violence in New York City (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2003); Clarence Taylor, Fight the Power: African Americans and the Long History of Police in New York City (New York: New York University Press, 2018); and Andrew J. Diamond, Mean Streets: Chicago Youths and the Everyday Struggle for Empowerment in the Multiracial City, 1908–1969 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2009), includes an extensive discussion of police and black youth. More generally, see “Special Issue: African Americans, Police Brutality, and the U.S. Criminal Justice System: Historical Perspectives,” Journal of African American History 98, no. 2 (2013): 197–303.

  • 21. Eric Arnesen, Black Protest and the Great Migration: A Brief History with Documents (Boston, MA: Bedford Books, 2002); Grossman, Land of Hope; Robert S. Gregg, Sparks from the Anvil of Oppression: Philadelphia’s African Methodists and Southern Migrants, 1890–1940 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993); Joe William Trotter, Black Milwaukee: The Making of an Industrial Proletariat, 1915–1945 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1985), 123–124, 127–129; Richard Walter Thomas, Life for Us Is What We Make It: Building Black Community in Detroit, 1915–1945 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992); Richard B. Pierce, Polite Protest: The Political Economy of Race in Indianapolis, 1920–1970 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005); Kimberley L. Phillips, AlabamaNorth: African American Migrants, Community, and Working-Class Activism in Cleveland, 1915–45 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009); Nathan Irvin Huggins, Harlem Renaissance (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1971); David Levering Lewis, When Harlem Was in Vogue (New York, NY: Knopf, 1981); Cheryl Lynn Greenberg, Or Does It Explode? Black Harlem in the Great Depression (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1991); Shannon King, Whose Harlem is This, Anyway? Community Politics and Grassroots Activism During the New Negro Era (New York: New York University Press, 2015); Davarian Baldwin, Chicago’s New Negroes: Modernity, the Great Migration, and Black Urban Life (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007); and Darlene Clark Hine and John McCluskey Jr., eds., The Black Chicago Renaissance (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2012); and Adam Green, Selling the Race: Culture and Community in Black Chicago, 1940–55 (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2007).

  • 22. Harvard Sitkoff, A New Deal for Blacks: The Emergence of Civil Rights as a National Issue: The Depression Decade (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1978); Nancy Weiss, Farewell to the Party of Lincoln: Black Politics in the Age of FDR (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983); James Wolfinger, Philadelphia Divided: Race and Politics in the City of Brotherly Love (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011); Jeffrey Helgeson, Crucible of Black Empowerment: Chicago’s Neighborhood Politics from the New Deal to Harold Washington (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2014); Jason Sokol, All Eyes are Upon Us: Race and Politics from Boston to Brooklyn (New York, NY: Basic Books, 2014); Leah Wright Rigeur, The Loneliness of the Black Republican: Pragmatic Politics and the Pursuit of Power (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2015); and Joshua D. Farrington, Black Republicans and the Transformation of the GOP (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016).

  • 23. Robert E. Weems Jr., Desegregating the Dollar: African American Consumerism in the Twentieth Century (New York: NYU Press, 1998); and Jessica Gordon Nembhard, Collective Courage: A History of African American Cooperative Economic Thought and Practice (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2014).

  • 24. Darlene Clark Hine, “Black Migration to the Urban Midwest: The Gender Dimension, 1915–1945,” in Trotter, The Great Migration, 127–146; and Hine, “’We Specialize in the Wholly Impossible’ The Philanthropic Work of Black Women,” in Lady Bountiful Revisited: Women, Philanthropy, and Power, ed. Kathleen D. McCarthy (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1990), 70–93; Elsa Barkley Brown, “Womanist Consciousness,” Signs 14 (1989): 610–633; Dorothy Salem, To Better Our World: Black Women in Organized Reform, 1890–1920 (New York, NY: Carlson Publishing, 1990); Paula Giddings, When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America (New York, NY: Viking, 1984); Deborah Gray White, Too Heavy a Load: Black Women in Defense of Themselves, 1894–1994 (New York, NY: Norton, 1999); V. P. Franklin and Bettye Collier-Thomas, “For the Race in General and Black Women in Particular: The Civil Rights Activities of African American Women’s Organizations, 1915–1950,” in Sisters in the Struggle, ed. Collier-Thomas and Franklin, 21–41; Victoria Wolcott, Remaking Respectability: African American Women in Interwar Detroit (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001); Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo, Abiding Courage: African American Migrant Women and the East Bay Community (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996); Anne Meis Knupfer, The Chicago Black Renaissance and Women's Activism (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2006); and Lisa Krissoff Boehm, Making a Way Out of No Way: African American Women and the Second Great Migration (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2009).

  • 25. Touré F. Reed, Not Alms But Opportunity: The Urban League and the Politics of Racial Uplift, 1910–1950 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008); Nancy J. Weiss, The National Urban League, 1910–1940 (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1974): Nancy J. Weiss, Whitney M. Young, Jr. and the Struggle for Civil Rights (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989); and Dennis C. Dickerson, Militant Mediator: Whitney M. Young, Jr. (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1998).

  • 26. Gilbert Jonas, Freedom's Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle Against Racism in America, 1909–1969 (New York, NY: New Press, 2004); Manfred Berg, The Ticket to Freedom: The NAACP and the Struggle for Black Political Integration (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2005); Christopher Robert Reed, The Chicago NAACP and the Rise of Black Professional Leadership (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997); Patricia A. Sullivan, Lift Every Voice: The NAACP and the Making of the Civil Rights Movement (New York, NY: New Press, 2009); Kenneth Janken, White: The Biography of Walter White, Mr. NAACP (New York, NY: New Press, 2003); and Beth Tompkins Bates, “A New Crowd Challenges the Agenda of the Old Guard in the NAACP, 1933–1941,” American Historical Review 102 (1997): 340–377.

  • 27. Meier and Rudwick, CORE; James Tracy, Direct Action: Radical Pacifism from the Union Seven to the Chicago Eight (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1996), 14–15; and John D’Emilio, Lost Prophet: The Life and Times of Bayard Rustin (New York, NY: Free Press, 2003).

  • 28. Sugrue, Sweet Land, chap. 5; Wolcott, Race, Riots and Roller Coasters, Simon, Boardwalk of Dreams; and Andrew W. Kahrl, Free the Beaches: The Story of Ned Coll and the and the Battle for America’s Most Exclusive Shoreline (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2018).

  • 29. Meier and Rudwick, Along the Color Line, 314–332; Trotter, Black Milwaukee, 125–127, 134–135; Richard W. Thomas, Life for Us is What We Make It: Building the Black Community in Detroit, 1915–45 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992), 194–201; Andor Skotnes, “’Buy Where You Can Work:’ Boycotting for Jobs in African-American Baltimore, 1933–34,” Journal of Social History 27 (1994): 735–762; and Jeffrey Helgeson, “’Don’t Buy Where You Can’t Work’ Campaigns,” in Encyclopedia of U.S. Labor and Working-Class History, vol. 1, ed. Eric Arnesen (New York, NY: Routledge, 2006), 380–382.

  • 30. Barbara Ransby, Ella Baker and the Black Freedom Movement: A Radical Democratic Vision (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003); Sugrue, Sweet Land of Liberty, chaps. 1 and 2; Meier and Rudwick, Black Detroit and the Rise of the UAW; Bates, Making of Black Detroit; Kevin Boyle, “’There Are No Sorrows the Union Cannot Heal: The Struggle for Racial Equality in the UAW, 1940–60, Labor History 36 (1995): 5–23; Bruce Nelson, Divided We Stand: American Workers and the Struggle for Black Equality (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001); Rick Halpern, Down on the Killing Floor: Black and White Workers in Chicago’s Packinghouses, 1904–1954 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997); Roger Horowitz; “Negro and White, Unite and Fight!”: A Social History of Industrial Unionism in Meatpacking, 1930–90 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997); Ruth Needleman, Black Freedom Fighters in Steel: The Struggle for Democratic Unionism (Ithaca, NY: ILR Press, 2003); Megan Taylor Shockley, We, Too, Are Americans: African American Women in Detroit and Richmond, 1940–54 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003) and generally, Robert H. Zieger, For Jobs and Freedom: Race and Labor in America since 1865 (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2010); and Paul Moreno, Black Americans and Organized Labor: A New History (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2006).

  • 31. William P. Jones, The March on Washington: Jobs, Freedom, and the Forgotten History of Civil Rights (New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 2013), chaps. 1 and 2; Bates, Pullman Porters and the Rise of Black Protest; Paula E. Pfeffer, A. Philip Randolph: Pioneer of the Civil Rights Movement (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1990); and Herbert Garfinkel, When Negroes March (Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1959).

  • 32. Merl Reed, Seedtime for the Modern Civil Rights Movement: The President’s Committee on Fair Employment Practice, 1941–46 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press,1991); Andrew Edmund Kersten, Race, Jobs, and the War: The FEPC in the Midwest, 1941–46 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2000); Anthony Chen, The Fifth Freedom: Jobs, Politics, and Civil Rights in the United States, 1941–1972 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009); Duane Lockard, Toward Equal Opportunity: A Study of State and Local Antidiscrimination Laws (London: Macmillan, 1968); and Hugh Davis Graham, The Civil Rights Era: Origins and Development of National Policy (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1990). On interracial organizing efforts in California, see Mark Brilliant, The Color of America Has Changed: How Racial Diversity Shaped Civil Rights Reform in California, 1941–1978 (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2010).

  • 33. John David Skrentny, The Ironies of Affirmative Action (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press 1996); Nancy MacLean, Freedom is Not Enough: The Opening of the American Workplace (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006); Thomas J. Sugrue, “Affirmative Action From Below: Civil Rights, the Building Trades, and the Politics of Racial Equality in the North, 1945–1969,” Journal of American History 91 (2004): 145–173; Stacy Kinlock Sewell, “The ‘Not-Buying Power’ of the Black Community: Equal Employment Opportunity in the Civil Rights Movement, 1960-1964,” Journal of African American History 89, no. 2 (2004): 135–151; and David Goldberg and Trevor Griffey, eds., Black Power at Work: Community Control, Affirmative Action, and the Construction Industry (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2010).

  • 34. Francis P. Ryan, AFSCME's Philadelphia Story: Municipal Workers and Urban Power in the Twentieth Century (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2011); Dennis Deslippe, Protesting Affirmative Action: The Struggle over Equality after the Civil Rights Revolution (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012); David Goldberg, Black Firefighters and the FDNY: The Struggle for Jobs, Justice, and Equity in New York City (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017); and Thomas J. Sugrue, “‘The Largest Civil Rights Organization Today’: Title VII and the Transformation of the Public Sector,” Labor: Studies in Working Class History of the Americas 11, no. 3 (2014), 25–29.

  • 35. Clement Vose, Caucasians Only: The Supreme Court, the NAACP, and the Restrictive Covenant Cases (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959); and Jeffrey D. Gonda, Unjust Deeds: The Restrictive Covenant Cases and the Making of the Civil Rights Movement (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2015). On California, see Scott Kursashige, The Shifting Grounds of Race: Black and Japanese Americans in the Making of Multiethnic Los Angeles (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008); Shana Bernstein, Bridges of Reform: Interracial Civil Rights Activism in Twentieth-Century Los Angeles (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2011); Martha Biondi, To Stand and Fight The Struggle for Civil Rights in Postwar New York City (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003); Sugrue, Sweet Land of Liberty; and Dianne Harris, ed., Second Suburb: Levittown, Pennsylvania (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2010).

  • 36. See generally, Juliet Saltman, Open Housing as a Social Movement (Lexington, MA: Heath, 1971); Sugrue, Sweet Land of Liberty, chapters 7 and 12; for case studies, see Abigail Perkiss, Making Good Neighbors: Civil Rights, Liberalism, and Integration in Postwar Philadelphia (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2014); Lily Geismer, Don’t Blame Us: Suburban Liberals and the Transformation of the Democratic Party (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2015), chapter 2; and Sidney M. Fine, “Michigan and Housing Discrimination, 1949–1968,” Michigan Historical Review 23, no. 2 (1997): 81–114; data on state laws from Lockard, Toward Equal Opportunity.

  • 37. Christopher Bonastia, Knocking on the Door: The Federal Government's Attempt to Desegregate the Suburbs (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006); Gregory D. Squires, ed., The Fight for Fair Housing: Causes, Consequences and Future Implications of the 1968 Federal Fair Housing Act (New York, NY: Routledge, 2018).

  • 38. For a discussion of many of these cases, see Sugrue, Sweet Land of Liberty, chap. 13; see also Jack Dougherty, More than One Struggle: The Evolution of Black School Reform in Milwaukee (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004); and Clarence Taylor, Milton A. Galamison and the Struggle to Integrate New York City’s Public Schools (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1997).

  • 39. Milliken v. Bradley, 418 U.S. 717 (1974); 188–189, 192–193, 258–259, 261; Paul R. Dimond, Beyond Busing: Inside the Challenge to Urban Segregation (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1985); Jeffrey Mirel, The Rise and Fall of an Urban School System: Detroit, 1907–1981 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1993). Anthony Lukas, Common Ground: A Turbulent Decade in the Lives of Three American Families (New York, NY: Knopf, 1986); Ronald Formisano, Boston Against Busing: Race, Class, and Ethnicity in the 1960s and 1970s (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991); Jeanne Theoharis, “’We Saved the City: Black Struggles Against Educational Inequality in Boston, 1960–76,” Radical History Review 81 (2001), 61–93; Jeanne Theoharis and Matthew Delmont, eds., “Special Section: Rethinking the Boston Busing Crisis,” Journal of Urban History 43 (2017): 191–293; and Geismer, Don’t Blame Us, chap. 3.

  • 40. Jennifer Hochschild and Nathan Skovronick, The American Dream and the Public Schools (New York,[NY: Oxford University Press, 2003); Gary Orfield, Susan Eaton, and the Harvard Project on School Desegregation, Dismantling Desegregation: The Quiet Reversal of Brown v. Board of Education (New York, NY: The New Press, 1996); Michael B. Katz and Mike Rose, eds., Public Education Under Siege (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013); and Dougherty, More Than One Struggle; and Straus, Death of a Suburban Dream.

  • 41. Rhonda Y. Williams, Concrete Demands: The Search for Black Power in the 20th Century (New York, NY: Routledge, 2015); Peniel Joseph, Waiting Til the Midnight Hour: A Narrative History of Black Power in America (New York, NY: Henry Holt, 2006); Keisha Blain, Set the World on Fire: Black Nationalist Women and the Global Struggle for Freedom (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2018); Dayo F. Gore, Radicalism at the Crossroads: African American Women Activists in the Cold War (New York, NY: NYU Press, 2011); Penny von Eschen, Race Against Empire: Black Americans and Anticolonialism, 1937–57 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997); Brenda Gayle Plummer, In Search of Power: African Americans in the Era of Decolonization, 1956–1974 (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2013); Robin D. G. Kelley, Freedom Dreams: The Black Radical Imagination (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2002); Peniel Joseph, ed., The Black Power Movement: Rethinking the Civil Rights-Black Power Era (New York, NY: Routledge, 2005); Dean E. Robinson, Black Nationalism in American Politics and Thought (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001); and Rod Bush, We Are Not What We Seem: Black Nationalism and Class Struggle in the American Century (New York: New York University Press, 1999).

  • 42. Simon Wendt, The Spirit and the Shotgun: Armed Resistance and the Struggle for Civil Rights (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2017); Timothy Tyson, Radio Free Dixie: Robert F. Williams and the Roots of Black Power (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999); Joshua Bloom and Waldo E. Martin, Jr., Black Against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2013); Sean L. Malloy, Out of Oakland: Black Panther Party Internationalism during the Cold War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2017); and Nico Slate, ed., Black Power beyond Borders: The Global Dimensions of the Black Power Movement (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012).

  • 43. Tanisha C. Ford, Liberated Threads: Black Women, Style, and the Global Politics of Soul (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2015); James Smethurst, The Black Arts Movement: Literary Nationalism in the 1960s and 1970s (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005); Scot Brown. Fighting for Us: Maulana Karenga, the US Organization, and Black Cultural Nationalism (New York: New York University Press, 2003); William Van Deburg, New Day in Babylon: The Black Power Movement in American Culture, 1965–1975 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992); and Laura Warren Hill and Julia Rabig, eds., The Business of Black Power: Corporate Responsibility, Community Development, and Capitalism in Post-War America (Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2012).

  • 44. Jeffrey O. G. Ogbar, Black Power: Radical Politics and African American Identity (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004); William L. Van Deburg, Black Camelot: African American Culture Heroes in their Times, 1960–1980 (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1997), Daryl M. Scott, Contempt and Pity: Social Policy and the Image of the Damaged Black Psyche, 1880–1996 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004), chapter 9; and Russell Rickford, We Are an African People: Independent Education, Black Power, and the Radical Imagination (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2016).

  • 45. Sugrue, Sweet Land, chap. 10;

  • 46. Heather Ann Thompson, “Why Mass Incarceration Matters: Rethinking Crisis, Decline, and Transformation in Postwar American History,” Journal of American History 97 (2010): 703–734; Naomi Murakawa, The First Civil Right: How Liberals Built Prison America (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2014); Michael Flamm, Law and Order: Street Crime, Civil Unrest, and the Crisis of Liberalism in the 1960s (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2005); Marie Gottschalk, Caught: The Prison State and the Lockdown of American Politics (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2014); Ruth Wilson Gilmore, Golden Gulag: Prisons, Surplus, Crisis and Opposition in Globalizing California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007); and Heather Ann Thompson and Donna Murch, eds., “Special Section: Urban America and the Carceral State,” Journal of Urban History 41 (2015), 751–824.

  • 47. Dan Berger, Captive Nation: Black Prison Organizing in the Civil Rights Era (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2014); Heather Ann Thompson, Blood in the Water: The Attica Prison Uprising of 1971 and Its Legacy (New York, NY: Pantheon Books, 2017); Dan Berger and Toussaint Losier, Rethinking the American Prison Movement (New York, NY: Routledge, 2017); Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in an Era of Colorblindness (New York, NY: New Press, 2010); and John F. Pfaff, Locked In: The True Causes of Mass Incarceration and How to Achieve Real Reform (New York, NY: Basic Books, 2017).

  • 48. Christopher J. Lebron, The Making of Black Lives Matter: A Brief History of an Idea (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2017); and Keeanga-Yahmatta Taylor, From #BlackLivesMatter to Black Liberation (Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books, 2016).

  • 49. For exceptions, see the work of August Meier and Elliot Rudwick, particularly CORE: A Study in the Civil Rights Movement, 1942–1968 (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1973); Along the Color Line: Explorations in the Black Experience (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1976); and Black Detroit and the Rise of the UAW.

  • 50. Alan B. Anderson and George W. Pickering, Confronting the Color Line: The Broken Promise of the Civil Rights Movement in Chicago (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1986); Martin Mayer, The Teachers Strike, New York, 1968 (New York, NY: Harper and Row, 1969); Marilyn Gittell and Maurice Berube, eds., Confrontation at Ocean Hlll-Brownsville (New York, NY: Praeger, 1969); Daniel H. Perlstein, Justice, Justice: School Politics and the Eclipse of Liberalism (New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2004); Richard Kahlenberg, Tough Liberal: Albert Shanker and the Battle Over Schools, Unions, Race, and Democracy (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2007); Jonathan Rieder, Canarsie: The Jews and Italians of Brooklyn against Liberalism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985); J. Anthony Lukas, Common Ground: A Turbulent Decade in the Lives of Three American Families (New York, NY: Knopf, 1986); Ronald Formisano, Boston Against Busing: Race and Ethnicity in the 1960s and 1970s (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991). Important early correctives to this scholarship include James Ralph, Northern Protest: Martin Luther King, Jr., Chicago, and the Civil Rights Movement (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993); and Jerald Podair, The Strike that Changed New York: Blacks, Whites, and the Ocean Hill-Brownsville Crisis (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002).

  • 51. Synthetic accounts that solidified the conventional wisdom about white backlash and black radical excesses include Allen Matusow, The Unraveling of America: A History of Liberalism in the 1960s (New York, NY: Harper and Row, 1984); Jonathan Rieder, “The Rise of the ‘Silent Majority,’” in The Rise and Fall of the New Deal Order, ed. Steve Fraser and Gary Gerstle (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989); Jim Sleeper, The Closest of Strangers: Liberalism and the Politics of Race in New York (New York, NY: Norton, 1990); Thomas and Mary Edsall, Chain Reaction: The Impact of Race, Rights, and Taxes on American Politics (New York, NY: Basic Books, 1991); Stephan Thernstrom and Abigail Thernstrom, America in Black and White: One Nation, Indivisible (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 1997); Fred Siegel, The Future Once Happened Here: New York, DC, LA, and the Future of America’s Big Cities (New York, NY: Free Press, 2000); and Tamar Jacoby, Someone Else’s House: America’s Unfinished Struggle for Integration (New York, NY: Free Press, 2000).

  • 52. Lassiter, “De Jure/De Facto Segregation;” Jeanne Theoharis, “Hidden in Plain Sight: The Civil Rights Movement Outside the South,” in Myth of Southern Exceptionalism, ed. Lassiter and Crespino, 49–73; Sugrue, Sweet Land of Liberty, xiii–xxviii; and Jeanne Theoharis, A More Beautiful and Terrible History: The Uses and Misuses of Civil Rights History (Boston, MA: Beacon, 2018).

  • 53. Useful synthetic accounts include Quintard Taylor, In Search Of The Racial Frontier: African Americans in the American West, 1528-1990 (New York, NY: W. W. Norton, 1998); Theoharis and Woodard, Freedom North; Sugrue, Sweet Land of Liberty; Sokol, All Eyes are Upon Us; Mark Speltz, North of Dixie: Civil Rights Photography Beyond the South (Los Angeles, CA: The J. Paul Getty Museum, 2015). Few synthetic overviews of civil rights history nationwide have thoroughly integrated the history of the North. One noteworthy exception is Caroline Rolland-Diamond, Black America: Une histoire des luttes pour l'égalité et la justice (Paris, France: La Découverte, 2016).

  • 54. Osofsky, Black Harlem; Kusmer, A Ghetto Takes Shape; Philpott, Slum and the Ghetto; Spear, Black Chicago; Katzmann, Before the Ghetto.

  • 55. See Grossman, Land of Hope; Trotter, Black Milwaukee; Thomas, Life is for Us What We Make It; and Quintard Taylor, The Forging of a Black Community: Seattle's Central District from 1870 through the Civil Rights Era (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1994).

  • 56. The term “spatial turn” was coined by Matthew Lassiter, The Silent Majority: Suburban Politics in the Sunbelt South (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007), 7. For examples concerning race and metropolitan areas outside the South, see Arnold Hirsch, Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago, 1940-–1960 (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1983); Sugrue, Origins of the Urban Crisis; Robert O. Self, American Babylon: Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003); Lizabeth Cohen, A Consumers’ Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption in Postwar America (New York, NY: Knopf, 2003); Amanda R. Seligman, Block by Block: Neighborhoods and Public Policy on Chicago’s West Side (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2005); David M. P. Freund, Colored Property: State Policy and White Racial Politics in Suburban America (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2007); Colin Gordon, Mapping Decline: St. Louis and the Fate of the American City (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008); Andrew Highsmith, Demolition Means Progress: Flint, Michigan, and the Fate of the American Metropolis (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2015); Geismer, Don’t Blame Us; and Andrew J. Diamond, Chicago on the Make: Power and Inequality in an American City (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2017).

  • 57. Jacqueline Dowd Hall, “The Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past,” Journal of American History 90, no. 4 (2005): 1233–1263; Sugrue, Sweet Land; Lassiter and Crespino, The Myth of Southern Exceptionalism. For a critique of the long civil rights framework, see Sundiata Keita Cha-Jua and Clarence Lang, “The ‘Long Movement’ as Vampire: Temporal and Spatial Fallacies in Recent Black Freedom Studies,” Journal of African American History 92, no. 2 (2007): 265–288.

  • 58. Many case studies can be found in edited collections, including Jeanne Theoharis and Komozi Woodard, eds., Groundwork: Local Black Freedom Movements in America (New York: New York University Press, 2005); Theoharis and Woodard, Freedom North; Peniel Joseph, ed., The Black Power Movement: Rethinking the Civil Rights-Black Power Era (New York, NY: Routledge, 2006); and Yohuru Williams and Jama Lazerow, eds., Liberated Territory: Untold Local Perspectives on the Black Panther Party (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008). For book-length case studies by city see Chicago: Ralph, Northern Protest; Diamond, Chicago on the Make; Helgeson, Crucible of Black Empowerment; Green, Selling the Race; Seligman, Block by Block; Detroit: Karen R. Miller, Managing Inequality: Northern Racial Liberalism in Interwar Detroit (New York: New York University Press, 2014); Meier and Rudwick, Black Detroit; Bates, Making of Black Detroit; Heather Ann Thompson, Whose Detroit? Politics, Labor, and Race in a Modern American City (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001); Los Angeles: Josh Sides. L.A. City Limits: African American Los Angeles from the Great Depression to the Present (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003); Kurashige, Shifting Grounds of Race; Bernstein, Bridges of Reform; Newark Kevin Mumford, Newark: A History of Race, Rights, and Riots in America (New York: New York University Press, 2008); Julia Rabig, The Fixers: Devolution, Development and Civil Society in Newark, 1960–1990 (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2016); Mark Krasovic, The Newark Frontier: Community Action in the Great Society (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2016); Biondi, To Stand and Fight; Craig Wilder, A Covenant with Color: Race and Social Power in Brooklyn (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2000); Clarence Taylor, ed., Civil Rights in New York City from World War II to the Giuliani Era (New York, NY: Fordham University Press, 2011); Brian Purnell, Fighting Jim Crow in the County of Kings: The Congress of Racial Equality in Brooklyn (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2013); Oakland: Self, American Babylon; Donna Jean Murch, Living for the City: Migration, Education, and the Rise of the Black Panther Party in Oakland, California (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010); Philadelphia: Levenstein, Movement Without Marches; Countryman, Up South; Matthew F. Delmont, The Nicest Kids in Town: American Bandstand, Rock 'n' Roll, and the Struggle for Civil Rights in 1950s Philadelphia (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2014); Stanley Arnold, Building the Beloved Community: Philadelphia’s Interracial Civil Rights Organizations and Race Relations, 1930–1970 (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2014); St. Louis: Clarence Lang, Grassroots at the Gateway: Class Politics and Black Freedom Struggle in St. Louis (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2009); Kenneth Jolly, Black Liberation in the Midwest: The Struggle in St. Louis, Missouri, 1964–1970 (New York, NY: Routledge, 2006); Other places: Patrick Jones, The Selma of the North: Civil Rights Insurgency in Milwaukee (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009); Randal Jelks, African Americans in the Furniture City: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Grand Rapids (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2006); Kahrl, Free the Beaches; and Gretchen Cassel Eick, Dissent in Wichita: The Civil Rights Movement in the Midwest, 1954–1972 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001).

  • 59. Marcia Chatelain, South Side Girls: Growing up in the Great Migration (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2015); Victoria Wolcott, Remaking Respectability: African-American Women in Interwar Detroit (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001); Cheryl D. Hicks, Talk with You Like a Woman: African American Women, Justice, and Reform in New York, 1890–1935 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2015); and Keona K. Ervin, Gateway to Equality: Black Women and the Struggle for Economic Justice in St. Louis (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2018).

  • 60. Winston James, Holding Aloft the Banner of Ethiopia: Caribbean Radicalism in Early Twentieth Century America (New York: NY: Verso, 1998); Minkah Makalani, In the Cause of Freedom: Radical Black Internationalism from Harlem to London, 1917–1939 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011); Blain, Set the World on Fire; William R. Scott, The Sons of Sheba's Race: African-Americans and the Italo-Ethiopian War, 1935–41 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993); and Von Eschen, Race Against Empire; Gerald Horne, Red Seas: Ferdinand Smith and Radical Black Sailors in the United States and Jamaica (New York: New York University Press, 2005); and more generally, Kelley, Freedom Dreams; and Joseph, Waiting Til the Midnight Hour.

  • 61. Mark Naison, Communists in Harlem During the Great Depression (Urbana: University of Illinois Press 1983); Eric Gellman, Death Blow to Jim Crow: The National Negro Congress and the Rise of Militant Civil Rights (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012); Biondi, To Stand and Fight; Gerald Horne, Communist Front? The Civil Rights Congress, 1946–1956 (Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1988); Gerald Horne, Black Liberation/Red Scare: Ben Davis and the Communist Party (Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press, 1994); Carol Anderson, Eyes Off the Prize; Brenda Gayle Plummer, Rising Wind: Black Americans and U.S. Foreign Affairs, 1935–1960 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996); Mary Dudziak, Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000); Thomas Borstelmann, The Cold War and the Color Line: American Race Relations in the Global Arena (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001); Eric Arnesen, “No ‘Graver Danger:’ Black Anticommunism, the Communist Party, and the Race Question,” Labor 3 (2006): 13–52; Gore, Radicalism at the Crossroads; Erik McDuffie, Sojourning for Freedom: Black Women, American Communism, and the Making of Black Left Feminism (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2011); and Carol Anderson, “Bleached Souls and Red Negroes: The NAACP and Black Communists in the Early Cold War, 1948–52,” in Window on Freedom, ed. Brenda Gayle Plummer (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003), 93–113.

  • 62. Richard Kluger, Simple Justice: The History of Brown v. Board of Education and Black America's Struggle for Equality (New York, NY: Knopf, 1975); Mark V. Tushnet, The NAACP's Legal Strategy against Segregated Education, 1925–1950 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987); Mark V. Tushnet, Making Civil Rights Law: Thurgood Marshall and the Supreme Court, 1936–1961 (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1994); Michael Klarman, From Jim Crow to Civil Rights: The Supreme Court and the Struggle for Racial Equality (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2004); for newer work see Kenneth W. Mack, “Bringing the Law Back into the History of the Civil Rights Movement,” Law and History Review 27, no. 3 (Fall 2009): 657–670; Kenneth W. Mack, “Rethinking Civil Rights Lawyering and Politics in the Era Before Brown,” Yale Law Journal 115 (2005): 256–354. Kenneth W. Mack, “Law and Mass Politics in the Making of the Civil Rights Lawyer, 1931–1941,” Journal of American History 93, no. 1 (June 2006): 37–62; Kenneth W. Mack, Representing the Race: The Creation of the Civil Rights Lawyer (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012); David Canton, Raymond Pace Alexander: A New Negro Lawyer Fights for Civil Rights in Philadelphia (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2010); Risa Goluboff, “‘Let Economic Equality Take Care of Itself’: The NAACP, Labor Litigation, and the Making of Civil Rights in the 1940s,” UCLA Law Review 52 (2005), 1393–1486. For a bottom-up history of housing cases, see Gonda, Unjust Deeds; for a grassroots history of education protests and litigation, see Sugrue, Sweet Land of Liberty, 163–199. An excellent model for a bottom-up history of civil rights litigation that could be applied to a northern city is Tomiko Brown-Nagin, Courage to Dissent: Atlanta and the Long History of the Civil Rights Movement (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2011). For three quite different legal histories of interracial collaboration and conflict, see Brilliant, The Color of America Has Changed; MacLean, Freedom is Not Enough; and John David Skrentny, The Minority Rights Revolution (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002).

  • 63. Useful overviews of black power history include Ogbar, Black Power and Joseph, Waiting ‘til the Midnight Hour. On the Black Panthers, see Joshua Bloom and Waldo E. Martin Jr., Black Against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2013); Sean L. Malloy, Out of Oakland: Black Panther Party Internationalism during the Cold War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2017); Murch, Living for the City; Yohuru Williams, Black Politics/White Power: Civil Rights, Black Power, and the Black Panthers in New Haven (New York, NY: Wiley, 2000); Jakobi Williams, From the Bullet to the Ballot: The Illinois Chapter of the Black Panther Party and Racial Coalition Politics in Chicago (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2013); Williams and Lazerow, eds., Liberated Territory; Judson L. Jeffries, On the Ground: The Black Panther Party in Communities across America (Oxford: University Press of Mississippi, 2010); Lucas N. N. Burke and Judson L. Jeffries, The Portland Black Panthers: Empowering Albina and Remaking a City (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2016); Robyn C. Spencer, The Revolution Has Come: Black Power, Gender, and the Black Panther Party in Oakland (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2016); Alondra Nelson, Body and Soul: The Black Panther Party and the Fight Against Medical Discrimination (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2011); and Charles E. Jones, ed., The Black Panther Party Reconsidered (Oakland, CA: Black Classic Press, 1998). For other organizations, see various essays in Joseph, Black Power; Muhammad Ahmad, We Will Return in the Whirlwind: Black Radical Organizations. 1960–1975 (Chicago, IL: Charles Kerr, 2008); Brown, Fighting for US; Nishani Frazier, Harambee City: The Congress of Racial Equality in Cleveland and the Rise of Black Power Populism (Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2017); William W. Sales Jr., From Civil Rights to Black Liberation: Malcolm X and the Organization of Afro-American Unity (Boston, MA: South End Press, 1994); and James A. Geschwender, Class, Race. and Worker Insurgency: The League of Revolutionary Black Workers (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1977).

  • 64. Tracye Matthews, “No One Ever Asks What a Man’s Role in the Revolution Is”: Gender and the Politics of the Black Panther Party, 1966–1971,” in Black Panther Party Reconsidered, ed. Jones, 267–304; Kimberley Springer, Living for the Revolution: Black Feminist Organizations, 1968–80 (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006); Steve Estes, I Am A Man: Race, Manhood, and the Civil Rights Movement (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005), Bettye Collier Thomas and V. P. Franklin, eds., Sisters in the Struggle: African American Women in the Civil Rights-Black Power Movement (New York: New York University Press, 2001); Ashley D. Farmer, Remaking Black Power: How Black Women Transformed an Era (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017); Trevor Griffey and David Goldberg, eds., Black Power at Work (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2010); Rabig and Warren, The Business of Black Power; Rabig, The Fixers; Martha Biondi, The Black Revolution on Campus (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012); on black power and electoral politics, see Self, American Babylon; Countryman, Up South; Williams, From the Bullet to the Ballot; David R. Colburn and Jeffrey S. Adler, eds., African American Mayors: Race, Politics, and the American City (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001); and Leonard N. Moore, The Defeat of Black Power: Civil Rights and the National Black Political Convention of 1972 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2018).

  • 65. Steven M. Ward, In Love and Struggle: The Revolutionary Lives of James and Grace Lee Boggs (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2016); Jeanne F. Theoharis, The Rebellious Life of Mrs. Rosa Parks (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2013); Peniel Joseph, Stokely: A Life (New York, NY: Basic Books, 2014); Komozi Woodard, A Nation Within a Nation: Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) and Black Power Politics (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999); and Manning Marable, Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention (New York, NY: Henry Holt, 2010).

  • 66. Lisa Levenstein, A Movement Without Marches: African American Women and the Politics of Poverty in Postwar Philadelphia (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009); Rhonda Y. Williams, The Politics of Public Housing: Black Women’s Struggles Against Urban Inequality (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2004); Premilla Nadasen, Welfare Warriors: The Welfare Rights Movement in the United States (New York, NY: Routledge, 2005); Felicia Kornbluh, The Battle Over Welfare Rights (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009); Annelise Orleck, Storming Caesar’s Palace: How Black Mothers Fought Their Own War on Poverty (Boston, MA: Beacon, 2006); and Gordon Mantler, Power to the Poor: Black-Brown Coalition and the Fight for Economic Justice, 1960–1974 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2013).

  • 67. Thompson, “Why Mass Incarceration Matters;” Murakawa, First Civil Right; Flamm, Law and Order; Gottschalk, Caught; Gilmore, Golden Gulag; Thompson and Murch, “Special Section: Urban America and the Carceral State”; Berger, Captive Nation; Berger and Losier, Rethinking the American Prison Movement; Alexander, New Jim Crow; Elizabeth Hinton, From the War on Poverty to the War on Crime: The Making of Mass Incarceration in America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2016); Michael Javen Fortner, The Black Silent Majority: The Rockefeller Drug Laws and the Politics of Punishment (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015); James Forman Jr., Locking Up Our Own: Crime and Punishment in Black America (New York, NY: Farrar Straus Giroux, 2017); and Julilly Kohler-Hausmann, Getting Tough: Welfare and Imprisonment in 1970s America (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2017).

  • 68. Michael A. Gomez, Black Crescent: The Experience and Legacy of African Muslims in the Americas (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2005); Claude Clegg, An Original Man: The Life and Times of Elijah Muhammad (New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1997); Ula Yvette Taylor, The Promise of Patriarchy: Women and the Nation of Islam (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017); Manning Marable, Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention (New York, NY: Henry Holt, 2010); Judith Weisenfeld, New World A-Coming: Black Religion and Racial Identity during the Great Migration (New York: New York University Press, 2017); Bettye Collier-Thomas, Jesus, Jobs, and Justice: African American Women and Religion (New York, NY: Knopf, 2010); Clarence Taylor, The Black Churches of Brooklyn (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1994); Clarence Taylor, Black Religious Radicals: The Fight for Equality from Jim Crow to the Twenty First Century (New York, NY: Routledge, 2002); Angela Dillard, Faith in the City: Preaching Radical Social Change in Detroit (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2007); Nick Salvatore, Singing in a Strange Land: C.L Franklin, the Black Church, and the Transformation of America (New York, NY: Knopf, 2005); and Kerry Pimblott, Faith in Black Power: Religion, Race, and Resistance in Cairo, Illinois (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2017).

  • 69. John T. McGreevy, Parish Boundaries: The Catholic Encounter with Race in the Twentieth Century Urban North (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1996); Gerald Gamm, Urban Exodus: Why the Jews Left Boston and the Catholics Stayed (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999); Eileen McMahon, Which Parish are You From? A Chicago Irish Community and Race Relations (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1995); and Timothy B. Neary, Crossing Parish Boundaries: Race, Sports, and Catholic Youth in Chicago, 1914–1954 (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2017).

  • 70. Murray Friedman, What Went Wrong: The Creation and Collapse of the Black-Jewish Alliance (New York, NY: Free Press, 1995); Maurianne Adams and John Bracey, eds., Strangers and Neighbors: Relations Between Blacks and Jews in the United States (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1999); Gamm, Urban Exodus; Wendell Pritchett, Brownsville, Brooklyn: Blacks, Jews, and the Changing Face of the Ghetto (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2002); Podair, Strike that Changed New York; and Cheryl Greenberg, Troubling the Waters: Black-Jewish Relations in the American Century (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006).

  • 71. James F. Finlay, Church People in the Struggle: The National Council of Churches and the Black Freedom Movement, 1950–1970 (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1997); and David A. Hollinger, Protestants Abroad: How Missionaries Tried to Change the World but Changed America (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2017).

  • 72. William Jelani Cobb, The Substance of Hope: Barack Obama and the Paradox of Progress (New York, NY: Walker, 2010): Peniel Joseph, Dark Days, Bright Nights: From Black Power to Barack Obama (New York, NY: Basic Books, 2010); Thomas J. Sugrue, Not Even Past: Barack Obama and the Burden of Race (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010); and Taylor, From #BlackLivesMatter to Black Liberation.

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